The ability of the rumen to digest feed is dictated by the rumen microbiome.

Rumen microorganisms transform components of feed into valuable energy for the cow. This energy is utilized by the cow for body maintenance, reproduction, milk production, and other important physiological processes. The dairy cow rumen microbiome is not only extremely diverse, but also highly dynamic in order to respond to the various ingredients included in dairy rations. The most productive and healthy cows have rumen microorganisms that digest feed more rapidly and effectively than other microorganisms.

Shären et al., 2018,   Mu et al., 2018,   Gleason et al., 2018,   Xue et al., 2018,   Honan et al., 2020


Modern beef feedlot practices maximize the fermentation ability of the rumen microbiome.

Highly fermentable rations fed to beef cattle have skewed the rumen microbiome towards microorganisms that readily ferment grain-based diets. Instead of maximizing digestibility, the most effective animals have rumen microorganisms that enable their host to better tolerate the byproducts of fermentation, particularly carbon dioxide, and thus have more stable rumen pH.

Laporte-Uribe, 2016,   Laporte-Uribe, 2019,   Khafipour et al., 2016


The chicken GI tract is highly influenced by its environment.

Just after hatching, baby chicks are protected by antimicrobial compounds found in the egg white. Once this protective effect diminishes, the bird's GI microbiome is established based on microorganisms residing in the litter of the housing environment, as well as fecal and cecal material from other birds within the flock. The most productive, healthy chickens are those seeded with particular microorganisms early in life. These intial colonizers influence microbiome development and guide successional changes throughout the entire life of the bird.

Johnson et al., 2018,   Ballou et al., 2016,   Jurburg et al., 2019,   Stanley et al., 2013


Like their human owners, dogs are prone to microbiome dysbioses.

The dog gut microbiome composition can shift for a variety of reasons. Antibiotic treatment, change in diet, or even non-GI related disease can cause major changes in the abundance of particular members of the canine gut microbiome. Healthy dogs tend to have specific microorganisms present in their GI tract. Presence of these microorganisms improve the resilience of the microbiome, and make the microbiome community less susceptible to major dysbiotic events.

Pilla et al., 2020,   Suchodolski et al., 2012,   Huang et al., 2020


Reoccuring colic is linked to dysbiosis in the horse gut microbime.

Colic, particularly gas distension colics, are often initiated by dysbioses induced by pathogenic microorganisms, stress, or diet. After treatment of colic, horses have a tendency to relapse and experience additional colic episodes due to an imbalanced GI microbiome composition. Reseeding the microbiome with beneficial microorganisms after colic treatment can reduce the chance of future recurrent colics.

Bland, 2016,   Costa et al., 2012,   Juilland et al., 2017,   Kauter et al., 2019,   Garber et al., 2020


Discovery survey underway


Discovery survey underway


Discovery survey underway